Chapter Three of the Book of Planetology of
The Bible According to Einstein
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The New Testament 301
The eighth book of Planetology, called
And the fifth planet from the Sun was called Jupiter.
Chapter I: Orbit, Size and Weight
And Jupiter, named after the Roman god of the heavens, who was the god of all gods, shall be the fifth child of the Sun. And once every twelve years shall he complete his circuit round the Sun at a distance five times that of Earth. And every ten hours shall Jupiter complete a single spin. And so a day on Jupiter shall last ten hours. Now Jupiter shall be the largest and the heaviest of all the children of the Sun with a diameter of one-hundred-and-forty-thousand kilometers. So Jupiter shall be thirteen-hundred times more voluminous and three-hundred-and-twenty times more massive than the Earth. But Jupiterís weight shall still be only one-thousandth of Sunís weight.
Chapter II: Jupiterís Body
Now almost all of Jupiter shall be a liquid! But at the planetís center shall be a relatively small-sized solid core. There, the temperature shall be several times hotter than the surface of the Sun, and the pressure shall be more than fifty-million atmospheres. A large layer of atomic hydrogen shall surround the core; the enormous pressure shall make the layer liquid and metallic. And this conducting fluid shall occupy most of the planet, extending three-quarters of the way through Jupiter.
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At the three-quarters point shall the pressure drop to three-million atmospheres and allow a new fluid to appear, which shall make up the outer layer of mighty Jupiter. It shall be a mixture of liquid molecular hydrogen and liquid helium. Thus the surface of Jupiter shall be an ocean of helium and hydrogen!
Now in the conducting metallic middle layer shall swirl electric currents, which produce a magnetic field nineteen-thousand times stronger than the magnetic field of Earth.285 And as the planet rotates, radio waves shall be produced by this magnetic field. And magnetic interactions shall create a five-million-Ampere electrical current between Jupiter and its companion Io. Thus an invisible lightning shall spark between the two.
Now heat from Jupiter shall rise into the atmosphere. More than one-third of the heat radiating from the planet into outer space shall come from Jupiterís hot liquid body the rest shall come from re-radiated sunlight.
Chapter III: Jupiterís Atmosphere
And Jupiter shall wear
Josephís multicolored coat.
And Jupiterís treasure shall be its atmospheric coat. The atmosphere shall be one-tenth helium, nine-tenths hydrogen with trace amounts of water vapor, methane, ethane, ammonia and many other gases. And certain compounds shall act as pigments and provide the colors of the atmospheric coat.
Now the atmosphere shall have four layers of clouds. And the highest clouds shall be of frozen ammonia white crystals. There, the pressure shall be one atmosphere and the temperature shall be one-hundred-and-forty Kelvins, which is very cold. The next layer shall contain tawny clouds of ammonium hydrosulfide and other ammonia-sulfur compounds. And the next to lowest layer shall contain brown clouds, while the lowest layer shall be blue clouds of water-ice, water vapor and ammonium hydroxide. Now the temperature and pressure shall go up as one descends the atmosphere. And so at the top of the lowest layer, the pressure shall be ten atmospheres ten times the air pressure at the surface of the Earth. There, the temperature shall be room temperature. And the blue clouds of the lowest-cloud layer shall extend downward toward the surface of the planet Jupiter, while the pressure and temperature shall both continue to increase.
Now the atmosphere of Jupiter shall be chaotic, wild, violent and turbulent. Gases shall rise up in certain places and sweep down in others.
285 The magnetism shall weaken with distance from Jupiterís center so that magnetism at Jupiterís surface shall be only thirteen times stronger than magnetism at Earthís surface.
The New Testament 303
And a rising gas mass shall create a great low-pressure region. And in such a region shall white clouds appear. And a sinking gas mass shall create a great high-pressure region. And in such a region shall belts of brown and red appear. Thus the up-and-down motions of air mass shall produce an atmospheric coat of many colors.
Chapter IV: Weather
Now the weather on Jupiter shall be violent, unpredictable and quickly changing. And lightning bolts shall often flash among the clouds. And Jupiter shall also have more orderly brisk winds, which at certain latitudes blow east and at other latitudes blow west. Now in a band centered at the equator, the strongest wind shall blow, flowing easterly at three-hundred-and-fifty kilometers per hour. And sometimes such winds shall tear a hole in the upper atmosphere and expose blue-gray and purple clouds. In other bands, winds shall blow less strongly: one-hundred kilometers per hour. And these winds shall produce other colored bands on Jupiter of yellow, brown and orange.
Now when a band of easterly winds meets a band of westerly winds, giant eddies, braids and folds shall form. The latter shall look like unto the folds and ripples in a curtain that is drawn aside. And in an eddy, the wind shall swirl in a giant hurricane. At any given moment, there shall be dozens of such hurricanes that swirl the clouds and gases of the atmosphere. And from Earth, ye shall see such a hurricane as an oval spot on Jupiter. And the spots shall be orange, yellow, white or brown. And some shall shrink in size and disappear, while others shall suddenly emerge. And the spots shall slowly move across the surface of the planet, sometimes dividing into two. And sometimes, two shall merge to one. And the larger spots shall be thousands of kilometers in size and live for decades and sometimes centuries.
And the largest spot shall be Jupiterís majestic red medallion. And it shall have a name. And the name shall be the Great Red Spot. It shall be so large that two entire Earths could fit inside it. And it shall extend high above surrounding clouds. Inside the Great Red Spot, winds shall blow at more than three-hundred kilometers per hour. And the Great Red Spot shall move slowly over the liquid surface of Jupiter at a few kilometers per hour.
Chapter V: Many Moons
And Jupiter shall have sixteen companions. And the companions shall have names: Sinope, Pasiphae, Carme, Ananke, Elara, Lysithea, Himalia, Leda, Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, Io, Thebe, Amalthea, Adrastea and Metis. And they shall be the moons of Jupiter.
And the orbits of the outer eight, Sinope, Pasiphae, Carme, Ananke, Elara, Lysithea, Himalia, and Leda, shall trace out great ellipses.
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And they shall not orbit in the equatorial plane of Jupiter. Now Sinope shall be the farthest out, at twenty-four-million kilometers286 away from Jupiter. And since it shall take two years to go around the planet Jupiter, a Sinope-month shall be two years. Now Leda shall be the closest of these eight, orbiting at eleven-million kilometers from Jupiter. And Ledaís trip shall last two-hundred-forty days. So a Leda-month shall be two-hundred-forty days. Now Himalia shall be almost two-hundred kilometers in diameter. But the others shall be small.287 And these eight shall be the companions which Jupiter acquired in adulthood.
Now the remaining eight companions shall move in circles in the equatorial plane of planet Jupiter. And they shall be the friends which Jupiter knew from infancy.
The inner four, Thebe, Amalthea, Adrastea and Metis, shall orbit at one-hundred-and-twenty-thousand kilometers to two-hundred-thousand kilometers from Jupiter. Thebe shall be one-hundred kilometers in size, while the irregular and oblong Amalthea shall be two-hundred kilometers in length and a hundred-and-fifty-kilometers in width. And Adrastea and Metis shall be smaller twenty and forty kilometers respectively; these two shall be shepherd boys.288
And the moons between the inner four and the outer eight shall be Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. They shall be the prominent large moons a couple thousand kilometers in radius. And they shall be the Galilean moons.
Now it shall take Callisto seventeen days to orbit Jupiter. And Callisto shall have a dark stone-ice surface which is spotted with light patches and peppered with some craters.
And Ganymede shall be the largest moon in the entire solar system fifty-three-hundred kilometers shall be Ganymedeís diameter, rending it bigger than the planet Mercury! And its ice-covered surface shall be cratered and have dark patches, which are old, and light patches, which are young. And Ganymede shall circle Jupiter in seven days.
Now the interior of Europa shall be mostly rock. But just below its surface shall lie giant water caverns. At times, water shall be forced upward on the surface, where it shall freeze and leave Europa with a smooth craterless ice-cover. And the frozen water shall form crisscrossed patterns of dark stripes and curved ridges. Now gravity shall hold Io, Europa and Ganymede in resonance positions. And tidal gravity from Ganymede, Io and especially from Jupiter shall help draw water out onto Europaís surface.
286 This is one-sixth the distance between the Earth and Sun.
287 The sizes shall be tens of kilometers.
288 See Chapter VI below.
The New Testament 305
Io shall be the most active volcanic body in the solar system. Now tidal forces from Ganymede, Europa and especially from Jupiter shall cause the body of Io to bulge and oscillate. These motions shall squeeze the inner rock of Io. And this shall press the rock against itself, creating friction and great heat. And the heat shall melt some rock. And this molten rock rich in sulfur shall be ejected out of holes in Io. And the largest holes, twenty kilometers across, shall be mountainless volcanos; and Io shall have hundreds of them. Now the smaller holes shall be like geysers except that, instead of water, compounds rich in sulfur shall be ejected out. In eruptions, material shall fly up at a kilometer per second, spurting hundreds of kilometers above the Io surface. Upon landing, debris shall paint colored rings on Io. So rings of red, orange, brown or yellow shall be. Now some soot, dust and gases even shall escape from Io, journey to Jupiter and rain down on Jupiterís atmosphere, three-hundred-fifty-thousand kilometers away. Eruptions on Io shall eject enormous quantities of gas, soot and magma-rock.289 The land around volcanos shall glow from frequent lava flows. Thus Ioís surface shall be continually resurfaced. And the craters, which Io once had had, shall be covered by lava, leaving Io smooth. And lava shall paint the surface red and black, while sulfur-dioxide frost shall paint other patches white.
Chapter VI: A Miniature Solar System
And Jupiter shall have a single bright ring-band of reddish dust and grains. It shall be six-thousand kilometers in width and less than a kilometer in thickness. At sixty-thousand kilometers above the Jovian equator, the ring-band shall encircle Jupiter. And Jupiterís two closest companions, Adrastea and Metis, shall watch over this lone ring. And like unto two shepherd boys, they shall circulate on each side of it and help prevent material from leaking out.
So Jupiter shall be like a miniature solar system, with planets being moons, the asteroid belt being substituted by a ring, and the Sun being replaced by Jupiter itself.290 But the light that Jupiter gives off shall not be starlight of its own; it shall be reflected light.
289 In one second as much material is ejected onto Io as all the material ejected during the 1980 Mount Saint Helens eruption.
290 This similarity is not an accident: The formation of Jupiter and its moons was similar to the formation of the Sun and its planets, the only difference being one of scale. See the Old Testamentís Exodus XI and XII for solar system formation.
Copyright ©1999 by Jupiter Scientific Publishing Company
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