The Book of Homogenesis of The Bible According to Einstein

The Evolution of Humans

The twenty-second book of Creation
and the first book of the New Testament

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The New Testament                                       13

The twenty-second book of Creation
and the first book of the New Testament, called

Homogenesis

And a line in time was drawn.

Chapter I: Australopithecus

And man was separated from the ape
and made to rule over flocks of sheep.

It was five-million years ago. The jungles of Africa were thick with vegetation – trees strove to grow to be the highest trees; vines wrapped around their trunks; bushes stood in each otherís way; tall grasses grew wherever grass could grow. And the jungles were full of life, from the colonies of tiny ants dwelling in small mounds of earth, to the herds of giant elephants swinging long trunks as they strode forth. And Earthís animals were free – they were free to climb the trees, free to feed wherever food was found, free to roam the land. And birds of exotic colors flew from limb to limb. And giraffes did stretch their necks to reach for leaves. And crocodiles were on the lookout in the swamps. And screeching monkeys jumped chaotically in trees, while lonely lions roamed the wild.
     And it came to pass that a thunderstorm swept over eastern central Africa. And rain streamed down in lines from clouds above and pelted trees and earth below. And it rained until the evening and then stopped. Now the next day when the Sun rose up, the last few clouds had fled. And heat began to bake the land. And vapors rose up everywhere and curled about Earthís vegetation. And in the shade of jungle trees, mist condensed and did get thick. And a soft wind blew the mist about, making it turn as in a whirlpool. And the movement of the mist did seem to have a purpose, as if someone with a finger stirred it. And out of the steamy jungle and into an open field emerged an ape-like creature – it was a female proto-hominid.1 And as she stretched her arms apart and received the rays of morning sun, the fur on her wide chest was warmed. Then she turned and disappeared into the jungle and was gone.
     And the morning Sun inched up the sky. And mist did lift and earth did dry. The air was clear and fresh.
     Now this female proto-hominid was different from the proto-hominids of the middle-Miocene, for she spent more time on land than in the trees. And when she ran, she ran on all four limbs – she galloped awkwardly and slowly. But when she walked, it was with just her two hind limbs. And that left her two forelimbs thus dangling by her sides.

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1 Hominid means "man-like."

 
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14                         The Bible According to Einstein

     And that night, she slept in the safety of a sturdy bough. And a cosmic ray was sent from outer space. And the ray descended through the clouds to Earth and struck a piece of DNA2 within an egg-cell in her womb. And when the DNA did duplicate, it duplicated in a different way. And some changes in some genes were made.3
     And many months went by. And it came to pass that the female proto-hominid gave birth. She held the newborn in her arms and nurtured him.
     And many years went by. And the newborn grew into a healthy adolescent. But he was slightly different from his mother proto-hominid. Now he had long arms and short legs like her. But his mouth and chin were well forward while his forehead was receded. He had the body of an ape. And his face was as the face of a large chimpanzee. His teeth and skull were bigger than his motherís. He was a beast that was more human-like. And these things would be true of his descendants.
     And so it came to pass in Kenya that the proto-hominid evolved into the hominid. And this first hominid was provided with a name. And the name was australopithecus, which means the "southern ape." But australopithecus was not an ape – australopithecus was an ape-man; he was part ape, part man. And this first australopithecus was more like an ape than like a man.
     And australopithecines increased their numbers. But still, at this time in geo-history almost five-million years ago, the australopithecines did number few.
     Now male australopithecines weighed roughly forty kilograms4 and they were somewhat taller than a meter,5 while female australopithecines were smaller – one-fourth to one-half less. And these ape-women and ape-men had brains only slightly larger than an apeís.
     And in a jungle in East Africa, an ape-man reached up with his arms and grasped a tree-branch with his hands. And with one movement did he break it off. Then he stripped the short branch of its leaves and it became a stick. And he knelt down on earth. And the ape-man lowered his hands, which were interlocked about the stick. And he dug the dirt around a plant, grabbed the plant and pulled it up. And the plant possessed a dirty root. And the ape-man rubbed clean the root and ate of it.
     And elsewhere in an open field, an ape-man placed a nut upon a large flat rock. And he grabbed a round stone in his right hand and he slammed it down. And the round stone struck the nut with force. And the nutshell broke in pieces.

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2 For the definitions of words such as DNA, see the Index/Glossary.
3 Genetic changes from cosmic rays are rare occurrences. More commonly are genetic changes created by other reasons: exposure to ultraviolet light, environmental poisoning, contact with certain chemicals, random errors in reproduction of DNA, et cetera.
4 Ninety pounds.
5 Thirty-nine inches.

 
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The New Testament                                       15

     And a female australopithecus walked around while looking at the ground. And she spied a small sharp rock, picked it up and grabbed it with one hand. And grasping a sweet fruit in her other hand, she moved the sharp rock back and forth across the sweet fruitís rind. And so the rind was grooved with several slits. Then she peeled away the rind and ate the juicy fruit inside.
     And tens of thousands of years went by. And australopithecines did naturally evolve: Their teeth got stronger, for they spent much time in chewing hard fruits, tubers, nuts and roots. When walking, they leaned back a little more. The big toe on the foot moved closer to the other four. And when they ran, they ran on two legs, not on four. Thus their hands were free for doing other things. And so in moving forward and about, australopithecines looked a little different from before.
     And they used their hands in many ways – climbing trees, digging roots, grabbing nuts, peeling fruits, stripping trees of leaves, throwing rocks, holding food, and holding hands. And such daily tasks did lead to fingers with a greater flexibility and skill. And thumbs got stronger and more versatile.
     And australopithecines walked through woods in search of nuts, pods, berries, vegetables and seeds. But their favorite food was fruit. And they often climbed the trees to pick bananas.
     Now it happened that an ape-woman and ape-man were walking through the jungle. And nearby a lion crouched behind a bush. And by chance, the ape-man turned his head and spied the lionís mane. The ape-man uttered a low sound and pointed with his finger. The ape-woman scampered to the nearest tree. The lion leaped. The ape-manís mouth in a split instant opened wide; the lips curled back, displaying large white teeth. His vocal cords let loose a savage howl. The startled lion stopped. The ape-woman quickly climbed the tree. Then the ape-man turned and ran. The lion sprang again. The ape-man scrambled up the tree. The lion leaped and swung its paw. But the ape-man was well up the trunk and out of reach.
     Thus it came to be that australopithecines used their brains to solve problems of defense and food.
     Now ape-men shared the woodlands with the apes. And apes numbered more than ape-men. And although the body features and the faces of these two creatures looked about the same, the apes hunched over, using arms and knuckles like crutches when they hopped about, while ape-men walked more upright on two legs.


 
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16                         The Bible According to Einstein

     And those australopithecines, which had slightly larger brains, made better use of sticks and stones, invented different tricks for finding food, and learned resourceful ways to avoid hyenas, lions, leopards, jackals, wild dogs and cheetahs. And australopithecines with bigger brains lived longer lives and mated more. And they became more numerous. And the australopithecines with smaller brains fell victim to predators, went hungry and they mated less. And they became less numerous. And during hundreds of thousands of years, the brains of australopithecines got slightly larger.
     And those australopithecines that were a little stronger fared better too. And when food was scarce, they overwhelmed the others for the food. And they could better defend themselves against Earthís predators. And so the stronger australopithecines became more numerous. And with time, the smaller weaker australopithecines did number less.
     Thus began the battle to be smarter, stronger, bigger.
     And half-a-million years went by. And australopithecines had spread from Kenya into Ethiopia and Tanzania. And among the habitants of Ethiopia was one named "Lucy." Now Lucy lived for forty years. And when she died, her bones got buried in the ground. And luck would have it that the skull and bones of Lucy would survive unto this day. And in the year one-thousand-nine-hundred-seventy-four AD, her remains would be discovered in digs by paleontologists in Ethiopia. And from the bones, it would be known how Lucy looked. And at a site nearby, the remains of thirteen others like her also would be found. And because they lived together, they would be called "the first family."
     And time passed and disappeared – it was three-million years ago. Australopithecines had migrated to the southern part of Africa. Now they had a more spherical and larger head; inside the head was, compared with the first australopithecus, one-tenth more brain – four-hundred-and-fifty ccís6 of brain. And the neck was thinner and the nose was smaller, but still the nose was fairly large. And the teeth were more like human teeth. But the mouth and lower jaw still protruded like an apeís.
     And half-a-million years went by. And in eastern and in southern Africa, australopithecines progressed – the struggle to survive had made them larger and more muscular. But in relation to their size, their brains were not much bigger. And when they walked, they were nearly upright. But they stuck to primitive ways – rummaging for small dead animals to eat, digging with sticks, and hammering hard nuts with stones. And in a million years or so, this race would die. And nothing would remain of them or of their relatives but bones.7

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6 The abbreviation ccís, pronounced "see-sees," stands for cubic centimeters.
7 The demise of australopithecus is understandable: australopithecus had been stronger but not significantly smarter. In the Pleistocene, "big was better but smart was best."

 
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The New Testament                                       17

Chapter II: Homo Habilis

Let there be man.
And let him have dominion over the fish of the sea,
and over the fowl of the air,
and over the beasts of the Earth,
and over every creeping thing that creepeth on the Earth.
And it was so.
And this happened on the sixth day
of the first month of a long lost year.

It was about two-million years ago. And it had come about that the craniums of some australopithecines in Kenya and in Tanzania had increased in size – their skulls contained six-hundred-and-fifty ccís of brain. And the "smarter australopithecus" was given a new name. And the name was homo habilis, which means "handy man."
     Now the neck muscles of homo habilis were as the powerful neck muscles of the ape. And as for homo habilis, his forehead was receded. And he had bony cheeks, bushy eyebrows and a hairy face. But this ape-man was more man than ape. And compared with australopithecus, his jaw did not protrude as much. And his front teeth were smaller, thinner as well as sharper, and so for cutting and for tearing, they were better. And his hands were more adept.
     And homo habilines lived in secluded habitats on land. And they rarely climbed up trees. They sometimes searched the countryside for animals that had been killed by predators. And they took the bones of recent kills and broke them open with a stone. And then ate they the marrow of the bones.
     And fifty-thousand years went by and disappeared.
     And with two strong hands, a homo habilis lifted up a heavy stone above his head. And he eased it forward and he let it go. And it landed on a large flat rock embedded in the earth. And the heavy stone broke into fragments. And among the fragments, one had one sharp edge. And he took this piece and kept it as a tool. Homo habilis had made a tool from stone – this moment marked the start of the Stone Age.


 
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18                         The Bible According to Einstein

Chapter III: Homo Erectus8

Out of Africa they exited,
and into other lands they passed.
And they wandered in the deserts, in the mountains,
in the dens and in the caves of Earth.

It was one-million-and-six-hundred-thousand years ago. In East Africa, it came to pass that homo habilis leaned back and walked completely upright. And homo habilis was given a new name. And the name was homo erectus, which means the "upright man."
     Now homo erectus was the smartest creature at that time on Earth – his brain was twice the size of that of the australopithecus. And homo erectus had a smaller head, like modern man. And compared to apes, his face protruded less: the profile was the half-arc of an oval – the line between the eyebrows and the lips was even vertical. And his teeth in back were smaller, as in modern man. But his lips were fat, his mouth stuck out somewhat, his nose was wide and flat, his forehead still was little and drawn back a bit, his eyebrow bones were big, and from head to toe there was dark brown hair. This creature was a man-ape.
     And homo erectuses ate of eggs, birds and turtles; vegetables; small animals including rats; the dead remains of mammals; insects such as centipedes and locust; and fruits, fish, berries, nuts and roots.
     And one-hundred-thousand years went by. And one day, a homo erectus broke several sizeable branches off a tree and placed them in a pile. And from the pile, another homo erectus took one such branch and cut away the stems and leaves – the branch became a pole three meters long. And a third man-ape with stone in hand rubbed smooth the pole. Now the homo erectuses worked throughout the morning. And by midday, they had a pile of bushy branches and four poles. And gathering up the branches and the poles, they headed off into the jungle.
     Now the three homo erectuses arrived at a cave where four females and five children waited. And the bushy branches and the poles were placed beside a pile of round and fist-sized stones.
     And in the early afternoon, the man-apes gathered up the tools: Three males picked up the poles and several stones. And two females gathered up as many bushy branches as they could hold. And the three males and two females left the cave.

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8 Other species of the "homo family" also appeared during the last two million years. For example, homo rudolphensis dwelt on Earth around one-million-and-eight-hundred-thousand years ago, and homo ergaster arose around the same time as homo erectus.

 
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The New Testament                                       19

     And in the jungle, they walked all afternoon. And just before the Sun had set, they spied a cheetah, which had killed a sheep. Now the sheep was bleeding at the throat. And the cheetah was biting at the neck. And two males put down the round stones on the ground. And hiding behind the bushy branches, the females took positions in the front. And standing behind the females, two males held the four poles forward so that the four poles protruded through the branches. And holding fist-sized stones, the third male waited in the rear.
     And the five advanced in little steps. The females shook the branches and the males hollered loudly. The cheetah raised its head and watched with curiosity. Then the male in the rear did heave a stone, which almost hit the animal. The startled cheetah leaped back a little. The branches and the poles advanced. A second stone was thrown and hit the cheetah on the paw. The cheetah roared, displaying its sharp teeth. The male in the rear grabbed pebbles on the ground and threw them at the wild cat. The females shook the branches even more; the males yelled ferociously, and back and forth they thrust the poles. The cheetah clawed the ground and took two steps forth as if it would attack. Another stone was thrown and hit the cheetah in its side. The cheetah moaned and then ran off.
     And the slain sheep was carried to the cave. And just outside the cave, using a sharp-edged stone, one homo erectus sliced the animal. Blood dripped to the ground. And during the next three days, the man-apes ate the raw sheep meat – it was not often they ate meat.
     And a homo erectus took the woolly sheepskin to a nearby stream and washed it clean. And he came back and laid it next to other skins, which were lying in the cave.
     And night did come. And the homo erectuses retreated to the cave. And the females gathered all the bushy branches, and in a heap they placed them at the entrance – the cave was almost sealed. And skins of antelope and sheep were spread out on the ground. And all the homo erectuses lay down and went to sleep.
     And two-hundred-thousand years went by. And it happened that six homo-erectus males set off into the jungle carrying several wooden clubs and two large stones. And through thick vegetation did they hike for half-an-hour. And it came about that one of them beheld a boar. And he touched the others on the shoulders and pointed with his finger. And the six males tiptoed cautiously about and formed a ring around the unsuspecting boar. And the leader raised his hand and signalled. The six charged at the animal. The boar ran quickly in a random path. A club came flying down and struck the creature on its head. The boar let loose a shrill. A second blow did strike the boar below its neck. Stunned, it tried to run. And when still another club was shoved into its belly, the boar rolled over. And before the boar regained its feet, another male did raise a stone above his head with his two hands and heaved it down. It hit the creature on its crown. The boar was dead.


 
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20                         The Bible According to Einstein

     Now it was rare that homo erectuses hunted animals for meat – most small mammals simply ran too fast; others such as elephants, hippopotamuses and rhinoceroses were too big. And still others such as monkeys, apes and squirrels could escape by climbing trees.

.       .       .       .       .       .       .

     Now it happened that a tribe of twenty-five homo erectuses was living by a cave. Each night, to determine who would sleep inside the cave, they grunted at each other, pushed each other, and even sometimes hit each other. And usually, the strongest dozen slept inside, while the others had to sleep outside. And one day, a male returned from a two-day journey through the jungle. And he jumped up and down and grunted at the others. Now the next day at dawn, ten males left the site with several poles and many heavy stones. And at dusk they came upon a hill. And there, they stooped down, crouching to the ground. Below, there was a cave, in front of which australopithecines were walking, standing, sitting and/or eating. Now the ten males waited until darkness came. Then they tiptoed down the hill and to the entrance of the cave. And quietly they went inside. Now seven australopithecines were snoring in the cave. And seven of the ten homo erectuses assumed positions next to the australopithecines. And with two hands, each raised a heavy stone above his head – the other three held poles. Then the leader gave a nod. The stones came crashing down upon the heads. In their dreams, australopithecines did scream. And in their wakened state, they screamed. Repeatedly, stones struck the heads. Poles were thrust into the abdomens. Blood trickled from the heads of several dead. Blood spurted out of the abdomen of one of them. The poles were thrust repeatedly.
     And four days later, the other fifteen homo erectuses arrived. And they had a feast, for the meat of the australopithecus was good to eat. And a dozen homo erectuses moved to the cave of the australopithecines and stayed – the tribe was split in two.
     And some homo erectuses went to a brook, naked without any clothes. And they bent over, cupped the clear brook water in their hands and threw it in the air. And droplets sparkled in Sunís light. Then they threw the water on themselves to wash with this brookís water, which was the purest of all waters.
     Now elsewhere in East Africa, homo erectuses hunted animals. And elsewhere in East Africa, australopithecines fell victim to the poles and stones of homo erectuses. And although some australopithecines had stronger muscles than the homo erectuses, the australopithecines had no weapons. And these australopithecines did not run very fast, nor were they very big, nor could they climb the trees. And caves that had belonged to australopithecus became caves which homo erectus conquered and then occupied. And in fifty-thousand years, many East African australopithecines did disappear.


 
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The New Testament                                       21

     And elsewhere the australopithecinesí numbers did decline. And with diminishing numbers, australopithecus eventually died out and disappeared.

A link between the man and ape was gone.
In the battle of the brain and brawn,
the brain had won.

     And during the rest of the Pleistocene, the brain would go on winning.

.       .       .       .       .       .       .

     And homo erectus greatly did increase his numbers. And homo erectuses began to move about. From East Africa, they headed south to southern Africa and proceeded north to northern Africa. And during one-hundred-thousand, they wandered to the Middle East. And during another hundred-thousand years, they ventured into southeast Asia. And in one-million years BC, they arrived in Java.

Chapter IV: Tools

Thus Nature left in earth
the signs of ancient past activities.

And a homo erectus placed upon the ground a strong flat stone. And he grabbed a rock of quartzite and smashed it down against the flat strong stone. And the quartzite broke in pieces, among which there were ones that had sharp edges. And he selected those.9
     It was a million years ago. And a homo erectus grabbed one stone in his left hand and one stone in his right. And the right stone did he bang into the left. And a piece broke off. And on one side, the piece was blunt, while on the other, it was somewhat sharp. This homo erectus was among the first to manufacture tools.
     And several hundred-thousand years went by. And a homo erectus picked up a leg bone from a dead gazelle. And with a sharp stone did he reshape the bone. And after the end of the bone was worn down to a point, he placed it in a pile with other whittled bones. Next he picked up two chert rocks. And with one quick stoke, he struck one rock against the other. And a flat large flake broke off. And on one side, it was sharp. And on the other, it was smooth. And the flake fit snugly in his hand. And next to him were several piles of tools: Some tools were made from stones, and some were made of wood, and some were made from bones.
     And there were pebble choppers, quartz flake cutters, block-like rocks for grinding, concave scrapers, pointed wooden sticks, and bones with two-pronged ends. And as for making tools, he was the master of his peers, for he had perfected it – he had even made some tools for making tools; he was the first tool engineer.
     And the primitive tool trade evolved – the manufacturing of stone artifacts became a "valued art."

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9 A million years earlier, homo habilis had made tools in a similar manner. Now the "homo lineage" was selecting special stones like quartzite.

 
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22                         The Bible According to Einstein

     And as two-hundred-thousand years passed by, the making of domestic tools progressed. And many tools were more refined and smaller. And homo erectuses made well-shaped cutters, choppers and hand scrapers out of flint and wood. And they had many tools to manufacture tools. And homo erectuses carved out hollow regions in large stones – such crude bowls were used for holding things. And from animals, they made tools from skins and bones.
     And the making of hunting tools progressed. And a stone was shaped with two sharp sides – it was an axe.10 Now it would not be long before a short stem of stone was included in the axe. And this would be the handle. And such axes would be used for cutting, scratching, hunting and for many other tasks. And with time, wooden poles were made straighter and more pointed – such spears could be either thrown or thrust.
     Now it happened that a homo erectus, while hunting in the woods, spotted a large rodent. And he raised an axe above his shoulder. And with one flip of his wrist, he sent the axe forth spinning. But the axe disappeared into a bush beyond the rodent. And the startled creature jumped and then ran off. And for this homo erectus, it was bad luck – sometimes the axe went by its target; sometimes it struck.

Chapter V: Homo Erectus Becomes Smarter

And from the Middle East, homo erectus ventured into Europe. And at the same time from southern Asia, homo erectus wandered into northern China. And in that land, he was called the Peking man.
     Now the brain capacity of homo erectus had expanded – eleven-hundred ccís of volume was his brain. And homo-erectus children often played nonsense yelling games. Little did they know these games would train their brains.

.       .       .       .       .       .       .

     And one day in China, a thunder storm swept up the coast. And lightning struck a tree. And the tree went up in flames. And when the rain subsided, the trunk was still on fire. And a homo erectus took some leaves and made of them a heap. And then he broke a small branch off a tree and poked one end into the fire. And the branch began to burn. And to the heap of leaves he brought the flaming branch. And when he placed the flaming branch on top, the leaves below began to burn. And he watched with curiosity as the pile created red and yellow flames. Five minutes passed. The fire almost had consumed the leaves. And he went and collected other fallen leaves and placed them on the burning pile. And the flames sprung up before his eyes. And in some strange way he felt good. And in some rudimentary way he understood. And what he sensed was that fire was like homo erectus. And just as he and his companions had to eat, a fire had to eat. But the food that homo erectus ate was different from the food that fire ate – fire ate plants and leaves and wood.

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10 The definition of an axe is a triangular bifacial cutter. In prehistoric times, axes were often quite small.

 
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The New Testament                                       23

     Now he had made a "theory." His theory was that fire needed food and must be fed to stay alive. And his idea explained why fires lived and died. But his theory was not completely true, for fire (as man would later learn) was not alive. And so he was a proto-scientist – he was the first scientist.
     Thus it came to be that homo erectus mastered fire. And with the passage of time, other tribes acquired fire.
     Now some tribes lived in open camps along the banks of streams and shores of lakes. And always had they several fires burning; the females and the children constantly collected leaves, plants and wood to feed the fires. For the homo erectuses, fire, with its flickering hypnotic flames, was mystical. At night they sat around with light reflecting off their faces. The fires seemed to keep the predators away. And if a particularly aggressive wild cat moved in to try to make a kill among the young, a male would set a branch ablaze and wave the flames. And screams and a few well-directed well-thrown stones would always scare such predators away. With fire, homo erectuses were safe from wild dogs and wild cats. With fire, they no longer had to stay in caves and in secluded habitats. With fire, they were no longer cold in winter. With fire, they could move to habitats in slightly colder climates.
     At times, they danced around the fire and made grunts. At times, they fed the fire with an animal instead of wood. Since meat was good for them to eat, meat should be good for fire to eat. They seemed to worship fire. For them, a fire was a god.

.       .       .       .       .       .       .

     Now it happened that a homo erectus had the urge to eat. And he came upon an abandoned campsite, in which a fire still was smoldering. And a burnt animal was in the fire. And with a stick he pushed the animal aside and then picked up the carcass. But it was hot – he let it drop and shook his hand. And he waited several minutes, for he knew that the food that fed a dying fire, such as wood, eventually cooled off. And when he lifted up the carcass for a second time, the carcass was not hot. And he ate the meat and it was very good. And later, this homo erectus deliberately put carcasses in fire, for, to him, meat tasted better cooked.
     And soon11 other homo erectuses discovered that certain foods were better cooked. And they roasted seeds and sometimes roasted nuts. Thus it came to pass that although they mostly ate of vegetables and fruit, cooked meat tasted best to them. And they began to hunt more frequently.
     And so fire was given to homo erectus. And he could warm his hands if they be cold. And fire could be added to a stick to make a torch. And such a torch could be waved about in order to put fear into the eyes of beasts and keep such beasts away.

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11 Here, "soon" means thousands of years.

 
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24                         The Bible According to Einstein

Chapter VI: Homo Sapiens

The first man is of the earth.

And it was as if a mysterious and vaporous hand passed over Earth. The struggle to survive and evolution brought about a change. And so it happened that the body of the homo erectus changed: The skeletal structure of his head became lighter and more delicate – the jaw bones were less heavy and more intricate; the bony eyebrows disappeared; the head was rounder and more fragile; and the teeth were smaller and more specialized. And the brain case was more spherical and more voluminous.12 And although the cranium contained more brain, the cranium itself was thin and light.
     Now there were other changes too. The forehead and the chin were forward; the facial profile essentially was vertical; and the nose was less flat, more pointed and refined, and it stuck out. And since the head was lighter, the neck muscles had shrunk in size. And since, during the last several hundred-thousand years, homo erectuses had been chewing less – for they used tools instead of teeth to do their chores – the jaw muscles, although still fairly strong, were smaller.
     And the fingers were exceptionally skillful – they could hold a twig in the position of a pen, manipulating it at will. And with such fingers and such hands could finer tools be made.
     Slow and steady evolution had made homo erectus a "new man." And since homo erectus was smarter, he was given a new name. And the name was homo sapien, which means "wise man." It was four-hundred-thousand years ago. And man was man.13

And to celebrate the new creation,
somewhere, voices sang.

     And there in the jungle stood the first couple. And this archaic male homo sapien was provided with a name – his name was Adam. And this archaic female homo sapien also was provided with a name – her name was Eve. And Eve was so named Eve, for she was the mother of all men. And nearby, a snake crawled among the branches of a tree of fruit.
     And it came to pass that Eve and Adam had many sons and daughters. And they were the first generation. And in those days, men and women were naked and were not ashamed.
     And these archaic homo sapiens heard the call of Nature, "Go into the wilderness and make thy seed a hundred-fold." And archaic homo sapiens did just so.

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12 The brain-case volume was almost fifteen-hundred cubic centimeters.
13 "Man" used in the general sense, here and below, indicates the human race of both males and females.

 
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The New Testament                                       25

     And as one-hundred-thousand years went by, the art of making tools progressed. And one sunlit day, an archaic homo sapien placed upon the ground a strong flat rock – it was an anvil-stone. And he picked up a strong rectangular stone in his right hand – it was a hammer-stone. And he grabbed a piece of flint in his left hand and placed it on the anvil-stone. And using vertical blows with the hammer-stone, he struck the flint. And flakes broke off. And he selected one large flake that he liked best. Then he set aside the hammer-stone and grabbed a rock, which was V-shaped at one end – it was a chisel-rock. And striking the large flake repeatedly with this tool, he chipped off tiny bits. And finally, he took a fine-pointed stone and made some indentations. And when he was done, the flint flake was a well-sculptured axe. And it was very sharp.
     And in several hundred-thousand years, wood and stone would be combined. And there would be spears with axes on one end. And there would be hammers with granite heads and wooden handles. Now eventually, modern man would supplement the wood and stone with metals. And eventually, bows and arrows would appear. And for a while, such weapons would control the world. But in the Holocene, more sophisticated weapons would appear. And they would rule the world.
     And at a campsite, it happened that a fire was getting low – all that remained were glowing coals. And an archaic homo sapien made a heap of leaves and wood nearby this dying fire. And he picked up two short leafy branches and cradled them to form a shovel-branch. And with this shovel-branch, he shovelled up some coals. And carried he the coals to the heap of leaves and wood. And there he placed the coals. And kneeling down he blew the coals, and they glowed red. And soon the leaves began to flame. Thus at the campsite, a new fire blazed.

Chapter VII: The Word

In the beginning was the word.

It was a cloudless day in the Pleistocene. The women and the children of a tribe of homo sapiens sat in the sun outside their caves. And a baby crawled to where the woods began. And her mother stood up and yelled out, "na, na, na." And back and forth she waved her hand. But the child crawled behind a bush. And the mother hurried over to the baby and did bring him back.
     Thus it came to pass that archaic homo sapiens seemed to learn to give meaning to the grunts and sounds they made.


 
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26                         The Bible According to Einstein

     And it was only a question of time – sound would turn into signals. And sound signals would turn into words: "ya" would mean acceptance, "na" would mean refusal, and "aahh" would indicate a pain. And "mama" would mean mother. And "dada" would mean father. And so on. And eventually, words would be combined to make sentences and speech. And homo sapiens would communicate through sound. Now writing would come later – formal written language would not appear until the Holocene. And it would begin with one man making marks in dirt with sticks; at first, the marks would look like pictures of the objects they depicted. But these first pictographs would be a giant step in word-to-word communication, for later, abstract concepts would be represented. And eventually would come the written word.14

Chapter VIII: The World-Wide Man

Thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east,
and to the north, and to the south.
Thy seed shall be as the dust of Earth.

And archaic homo sapiens continued to evolve at different times in different places in the world. And in four-hundred-thousand years BC dwelt Vértesszollos men in Hungary and Swanscombe men in England. And from four-hundred-thousand years BC to seventy-thousand years BC, the Omo homo sapiens and others in East Africa did live. And archaic homo sapiens progressed: From one-hundred-seventy-thousand years BC to forty-thousand years BC, the Neanderthals occupied Europe, western Asia and the Middle East. And the strong and muscular Neanderthals learned to live in the cold and varying conditions of the Pleistocene by using fire in their caves.
     Then around eighty-thousand years BC in Africa, some archaic homo sapiens became less muscular, and their bones grew lighter. And the modern homo sapien was born. And he was called the homo sapien sapien or "wise wise man."15 And homo sapien sapiens multiplied, spread and populated all of Africa. And they moved into the Middle East. From there, they went off to the west, which was one of the four directions from which humans had divided all directions. And so, in forty-five-thousand years BC they entered Europe, where they were called Cro-Magnons. And the "cultural revolution" came to pass: Cro-Magnons made sculptures, created carvings and painted animals on walls of caves. And Earth had its first art. And Cro-Magnons practiced mysticism and performed religious rituals. And deliberately buried they their dead, sometimes placing flowers by the graves. And Earth had its first religious race. And from the Middle East, homo sapien sapiens did wander into Asia. And to all the corners of Eurasia did they spread. And they crossed a cold and frozen Bering Strait to northern North America. From there, they headed south and filled the land of North America. And they continued moving south through Central America and then to South America. And from mountain to towering mountain, from stream to winding stream, from plain to windy plain, everywhere was man – man was everywhere on Earth.

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14 From such a beginning, man would one day go on to write plays, novels, poetry and songs. He would create drawings, paintings, sculptures and great works of art. And he would record sacred and religious experiences in books.
15 With a lack of modesty, modern man designated himself to be "the smartest."

 
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