The Book of Darwin of The Bible According to Einstein

Darwin's Life and the Origin of Species

The ninth book of Chronicles

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The New Testament                                       119

The ninth book of Chronicles, called


The strongest shall survive and multiply.
The weak shall die.
And the clever meek, if they survive,
will have to hide or put on a disguise.
And these became the laws
of the survival of the fittest.

Chapter I: Darwin’s Early Life

And in the year 1809, Chevalier de Lamarck published Philosophie Zoologique, in which he proclaimed that organic evolution was a universal principle of Nature. And although the idea was immediately rejected by all scholars at the time, the spirit of the idea did rise up and enter the mind’s eye of one newborn boy. And family members gathered to give that boy a name. And that name was Charles. And so it came to pass that Charles Darwin was born in England on the twelfth day of the second month of that year.
     Now it happened that Charles Darwin had "biological blood" in his own blood: His grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, was a physician, botanist, philosopher and poet.101 His father, Robert Darwin, was a doctor with a large and profitable practice.
     And Darwin enjoyed an ideal childhood with few concerns. Money from his father would throughout his life alleviate him of financial worries. But at the age of eight, his mother died. Now as a young man he studied chemistry – he found it fun to mix the chemicals to see what would result. And he spent endless hours collecting shells, birds’ eggs, butterflies and beetles – insects and creeping creatures interested him. Now it would turn out that Darwin would have to choose between one of two paths for his career: science or religion.
     And at sixteen years of age, entered he the University of Edinburgh. And there he studied medicine. But he did not take a liking to the lectures and the books – he was an undistinguished student. Instead, he spent much time talking to zoologists and to geologists – Nature’s animals and Earth’s structures seemed to interest him. Then one day, the students of his class went to see an operation. Now in the early 1800’s, there was no anesthesia. And right before the students’ eyes, the doctors cut open a sick-one’s flesh, who gave out a cry of anguish and of pain. And Darwin had to leave the room – he could not stand to see this sight of suffering. Soon thereafter, Darwin left the University – he had no desire to become a doctor.


101 In 1794, Erasmus Darwin published a treatise on the theory of evolution called Zoonomia. Just before he died in 1802, he wrote the book The Temple of Nature.

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Chapter II: Career Decision

And so Darwin had to find a new vocation. Now at this time Darwin, like most Englishmen, was a firm believer in the doctrines of the Church. And in the year of 1827, Darwin entered Christ’s College, at the University of Cambridge. There he studied divinity and the word of God. And so Darwin prepared himself to be a minister. But Darwin spent much time hunting animals and shooting birds. And he went riding and socializing with his friends.
     Now Darwin wanted to also learn about the natural things – living creatures and geology. But Cambridge at that time had no degree in natural sciences. Nonetheless Darwin met a distinguished group of scientists at Cambridge. And among them was a clergyman and botanist whose name was Henslow. Darwin spent endless time walking with Henslow and learning of the animals and plants. And Darwin became excited about the scientific world. And correspondingly his studies of divinity declined – the religious path was not for him. And Darwin abandoned the University of Cambridge in 1831 – this year would be a turning point for his career.
     And Darwin decided to go on a scientific trip to the Canary Islands. As preparation, he read some of Humboldt’s works on Humboldt’s scientific trips to northern South America. And Henslow suggested that Darwin visit Wales to gain experience in geologic fieldwork. And so Darwin went to Wales. There Darwin studied earth.
     Then in August 1831, Henslow recommended that Darwin be an unpaid naturalist on the HMS Beagle – the Beagle was a naval vessel with two main masts.102 Now Darwin’s father objected to the trip – he felt a lengthy voyage to such faraway places as South America and the Pacific Ocean would be a waste of time and would do little to contribute to Charles’ floundering career. But pressure from Robert’s brother-in-law made Robert finally give in. And on December 27, Charles Darwin, at the age of twenty-two, sailed out of Plymouth, England, and into the Atlantic. And so Charles Darwin left his family – he left behind his father, brother, sisters and other relatives. Now the voyage, whose purpose was to survey the South American west coast and to set up chronometric stations in the Pacific Ocean, was expected just to last for two short years. But expectations and reality do not always coincide: Five years the trip would last.


102 A third smaller mast was at the stern, and there was a bowsprit.

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The New Testament                                       121

Chapter III: The Voyage of the Beagle

In the name of Nature, the compassionate, the merciful.

And the Beagle headed south. And while waiting to reach the volcanic island of Tenerife of the Canary Islands, Darwin read about the latest theory of geology.103 Now this new theory spoke of how the face of Earth had changed slowly over periods of time – volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, erosion by wind and water, the re-distribution of sand, earth and sediments by streams and rivers – all these natural forces affected landscape shape. Thus the surface of the Earth was susceptible to change, a change that was continual and gradual. And this new view was different from earlier ideas, which said that God-like and dramatic short-lived events had raised mountains, sunk land or created world-wide floods like Noah’s flood. Now few people, including scientists and religious thinkers, believed in the new view. And likewise Darwin was disturbed by it, for he had read the Holy Bible and knew what it had said.
     And in Tenerife, Darwin studied Earth and its terrain – he was searching for an answer in the earth, but he found no answer there. Rather, he saw some natural wonders like the bluebird and the dragon-tree.104 And then the Beagle headed south again. And this time it came upon São Tiago, a member of the Cape Verde Archipelago and the driest island in the world. And Darwin continued there his quest for truth. And Darwin saw a cliff in which there was a white band containing many shells. Now the shells were the same kinds that could be found on São Tiago beaches. And Darwin realized that the structure had been formed by two events – first lava must have flowed on top of a seabed containing shells, and then the seabed must have been heaved up to form the cliff. Next Darwin studied the island’s land in detail. And he saw giant "tongues" of lava lapping over one another. And he reasoned that many lava flows were needed for such structures. And he concluded that the surface of the island had been built by many lava flows. And what he saw before him was the truth about the Earth.
     And a great ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, did the Beagle cross. There Darwin saw porcupine fish, dolphins, sperm whales and many other swimming creatures which did swim the seas. And a wind with purpose blew the sails of the Beagle, and down the east coast of Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina did the Beagle go. And Darwin saw brown boobies,105 flamingos, morpho butterflies and many other flying creatures which did fly the skies. These exotic lands delighted him. And he went wild like a wild cowboy when he went riding with the gauchos in the vast pampas-plains of Argentina. His spirit, which had been unkindled in his studies at universities, burned like a towering flame – he had been transformed into a naturalist.


103 An important book, which had considerable influence on Darwin, was the Principles of Geology by Charles Lycell, published in 1830.
104 The dragon-tree, a member of the lily family, is a plant that looks like a tree. It has pointed leaves and hidelike bark.
105 The boobies fly high above oceans then plunge hard into the water to catch their prey. They are tame and have no fear of humans. Early sailors, who easily killed the birds, named them boobies due to what seemed to be a lack of intelligence.

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     And the Beagle visited the archipelago of Tierra del Fuego106 off the southern tip of South America. And Darwin saw the forests of snow-tipped mountains rising out of the Magellan Strait. And near the seas and among the trees were Yahgan Indians, who were, in Darwin’s words, poor and naked natives who fished and gathered shells in leaky boats in order to maintain a miserable existence.107
     And up the western coast of Chile did the Beagle go. And Darwin ventured inland where he saw the Andes Mountains. "How majestic, giant and magnificent they be," he thought. "The world before me holds great truths." And at four-thousand meters high, he found some truth within the rugged mountains – he discovered fossil-shells. "What were seashells doing there?" he asked himself. And in notebooks, he wrote down his geologic observations. And he collected rocks for further study and for later use.
     Now the South American tropics were a paradise for him. He explored the hot and humid jungles where hid exotic plants and animals. And although there were dangers in the wild jungles, curiosity was a force in Darwin that made danger fall aside. He examined lizards, beetles, frogs and other tiny creeping creatures which did creep in earth. And he studied deer, rheas,108 jaguars, armadillos, llamas and other crawling creatures which did crawl on earth. And he discovered a fossil of giant-ground-sloth and a fossil of the predecessor of the tuco-tuco.109 And these were indeed discoveries, for later he would learn that no such fossils of these creatures had been seen by man before.
     And when he did find fossils, he brought them aboard the Beagle. And these fossils would turn out to be like natural scriptures, for in them would be written truths about the ancient world of living things.


106 In Spanish, this name means "island of fire." The name was provided by Magellan – when he "discovered" the island at night, Indian bonfires were seen everywhere.
107 Two years before Darwin’s voyage, the Beagle had passed by Tierra del Fuego and British sailors had seen the unfortunate life of the Yaghans. As a "favor" to these "savages," the sailors brought three young Yaghans aboard. The three were given the names York Minster, Fuegia Basket and Jeremy Button and brought back to England. There, they were taught English, converted to Christianity and educated as Englishmen. The three reboarded the Beagle along with Darwin in 1831. When the Beagle passed by Tierra del Fuego, the three "educated" natives were dropped off so that they could civilize their former native compatriots. The "civilization" of the Yaghans was unsuccessful. Nonetheless, civilization eventually did come to the area. But European diseases also came and took their toll among the natives. In the middle of the twentieth century, the Yaghans numbered only nine. Another group of natives, the Chonos, whom Darwin had observed and who were also shellfish gatherers, went extinct.
108 The rhea is a flightless bird similar to the ostrich.
109 The tuco-tuco is a small burrowing rodent, which resembles a gopher.

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The New Testament                                       123

     And it came to pass that an earthquake struck in Chile. And he saw the land rise up a couple of meters right before his eyes. And as the ground shook terribly, it shook Darwin physically, mentally and emotionally. And when the ground quivered, it seemed to speak to him. And Darwin understood, for there was "wisdom" in the rumblings of the Earth. Thus this earthquake, the first that Darwin had experienced, provided him with insight.
     And by the time the Beagle left the west coast of the northern part of Chile, Darwin, from his geologic observations, had become convinced that the new theory of geology was right: In the Americas, he had seen new landscapes on majestic scales. He had come to know how truly great the Earth and Nature were.

And Darwin saw a little light.

     Now everywhere he went, he collected specimens. And all the time in notebooks did he ink in words his findings. And months of observation sharpened his sense of seeing. And months of writing sharpened his hand at writing. And through all of this activity, his ability to gather facts advanced.
     And in the year of 1835, it came to pass that the Beagle landed in the Galápagos Archipelago. These islands were a paradise of life. And Darwin was in awe of the natural magnificence and was fascinated by the variety of faunal forms, virtually none of which had he seen in any other land. And he paced beside a great land tortoise to judge its crawling pace. And later, he would learn that these giant tortoises were indigenous only to Galápagos.110 And he was fascinated by unique marine iguanas, which fed on seaweed and covered coastal rocks in groups of several hundred. And he was particularly intrigued by the great variety of finches and their beaks. And he took detailed notes about the fourteen kinds of finches living on these isolated islands. Now among the finches, two used cactus spines to dislodge insects in tree-bark.111 And strangely, on these warm tropical islands were Antarctic-like fur seals and penguins. And Darwin also saw cormorants – these birds could not fly but swam like dolphins after fish.
     And by this time, he was fascinated by the Earth and Nature. And he experienced a kind of bewilderment and underwent a certain enlightenment about the natural world.
     And the Beagle set out west. There in the Pacific Ocean was the Beagle, like a leaf with purpose. And it sailed to Tahiti of the Îles du Vent.112 And along the way, Darwin spotted frigate birds and albatrosses with wing-spans of two meters. And amazingly these birds glided endlessly for hours without the flapping of a wing.


110 The word galápagos is an old Spanish word for giant land tortoise. This tortoise is thought to have the longest life-span of any creature on Earth.
111 These are the only birds known to use a tool for feeding.
112 In French, this means the "islands of the wind."

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     Now Tahiti was a scenic and seductive island with jagged mountains – on two eroded volcanic cones had Tahiti long ago been built. And Darwin saw how swift streams drained the waters, when heavy rains did fall. How exotic was Tahiti! It was full of tropical fruit trees, and was fringed by coral reefs and large lagoons. And Darwin saw beautiful bare-breasted women. Now the natives were organized in large families headed by a tribal chief who used magic, enforced taboos, engaged in rituals and worshipped many gods. And in the warm attractive climate, Darwin ate sweet fruits and coconuts. And Tahiti’s seductive charm tempted him to stay. But Darwin did not stay. Instead he continued with the Beagle to other South Sea Islands. And Darwin saw exotic fish such as the trigger fish113 and trunkfish.114 And while travelling the Pacific, the British sailors left in stations clocks to keep the time. But Darwin had on board time-pieces of a different kind – fossils, broken clocks of ancient times.
     And Darwin studied the topography of islands and surrounding waters. And he realized that long ago volcanos had caused the seafloor to rise up, and that subsequently it had slowly sunk – and this gave further credence to the notion of large vertical motions of Earth’s crust. Later, this vast region of the southwest Pacific would be named The Darwin Rise.
     Now on the islands of the South Pacific and in the Americas, Darwin had observed strange tribes of different races. And to himself he thought, "The tribes of different natives – how different be their cultures, languages and lives! How different are their statures, skin and faces!"
     And all this time, Nature was providing him with hints and signs.
     And in New Zealand, he saw how glaciers had cut deep U-shaped valleys in the sides of majestic snow-capped mountains. And in the vast forests, which contained dozens of different types of trees, he saw birds that could not fly such as notornises115 and kiwis.116 And on the southeast coast of Australia, he found the duck-billed platypus, the rat kangaroo117 and other non-European animals. And there were birds of beautiful colors such as the crimson rosella118 and the pink cockatoo. And the Beagle ventured to Tasmania, where the tasmanian wolf and the tasmanian devil119 live.


113 The triggerfish, which is a tropical marine fish found near reefs, is named as such because it possesses a fin spine which can be locked into place and only released by a second fin spine.
114 Trunk-fish are colorful shallow-water tropical fish encased in a rigid box-like trunk.
115 A notornis is rare bird beautifully colored partly in blue and partly in green with a large red beak.
116 A kiwi is a chicken-sized brownish bird with small eyes and a long bill.
117 A rat kangaroo is a rabbit-sized marsupial.
118 The crimson rosella is a type of parakeet.
119 The tasmanian devil is a fierce skunk-sized marsupial.

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The New Testament                                       125

     Next Darwin and the Beagle headed to the third of Earth’s great oceans, the Indian Ocean. And vertically flat butterfly fish and surgeon fish, as well as flying fish – which could for short-distances glide through the air – were seen swimming in the sea. And Darwin saw and studied them. And cape pigeons, fairy terns and gannets were flying through the ocean air. And Darwin saw and studied them. And during the quiet moments of the voyage, when he was being rocked by ocean waves, he thought and theorized about the things that he had seen.
     And a wind with purpose blew the sails of the Beagle in the Indian Ocean.120 And in the year of 1836, it came to pass that the Beagle landed on the Keeling Islands, small coral islands covered with coconut trees and palms. There and elsewhere, Darwin collected shells. And in this region, he observed the hermit crab and studied coral structures in detail. Now Darwin had observed many reefs and atolls in the Pacific and the Indian oceans. And Darwin came to realize that coral reefs were built up by a gradual process – the coral, which only grew in shallow water, built up the seafloor as it built up itself. Now previously, atolls were thought to be an accident – the consequence of a volcano whose cone and rim were at the level of the sea. But Darwin realized the true way in which the atolls formed: First, coral built up the seabed round an island. Now if the island sunk sufficiently slowly, then coral growth could be maintained.121 Then if the island dipped below the sea, what would remain would be a ring around the former island. Thus through observation, Darwin did discover how the Earth and Nature worked.
     And Darwin saw Nature as no other had before. Thus Darwin obtained a certain "oneness" with the natural world.
     And the Beagle went around the southern tip of Africa and crossed the Atlantic Ocean for a second time. And after one stop in the western part of South America, the Beagle headed home.
     Darwin had been around the World. Thus Darwin had seen the World and witnessed Nature as it was.
     After five years of travelling, he arrived in England on October 2, 1836. Verily had he become an adventurer of natural phenomena.


120 But there was another wind in the air, invisible and impalpable. Against this other wind, the Beagle sailed.
121 Coral only grows in calm shallow waters so that if the seafloor sunk too fast, the coral would die. Also, small islands tend to sink under their weight, so the sinking of an island is a relatively common phenomenon.

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Chapter IV: Darwin’s Renaissance: His Search for Truth

Now Darwin handed over much of his collections to experts who could conduct analyses in further detail. And it had happened that Darwin had in South America discovered new forms of life, such as a new lizard, a new tanager,122 new finches, a new frog and a new rhea. And eventually these new species became known as Darwin’s lizard, Darwin’s tanager, Darwin’s finches, Darwin’s frog123 and Darwin’s rhea.
     And he was told that thirteen of the finches he had seen in Galápagos were not merely different types but actually were different species. Likewise, the mockingbirds that he had seen were also of three different species. And among the land tortoises of the Galápagos, two were indigenous to the archipelago but not to any continent. Now Darwin thought these things strange, for the current dogma, which almost everyone believed, was that each species had been brought into the world at its own separate and special creation-moment and that life forms had remained the same since the beginning of the World.
     And among his fossils was one that happened to be an extinct armadillo. And the fossilized armadillo was different from any living armadillo. And Darwin thought this strange.
     Now the expedition had provided him with deep knowledge of Earth’s fauna, flora and geology. And at the archipelagos that he had visited, Darwin had had a chance to observe the development of life in isolation.
     In England, publicly Darwin worked and lectured on the geology and natural history of the places he had visited. But privately he was puzzled by what he called "the species problem." This problem was the origin of creatures. And he scrutinized his notes and specimens for hints to its solution. Now Darwin noted a geographical difference between the faunal species: In one part of Argentina were giant rheas, but in another part they were much smaller. And both of these were different from the ostriches in Africa. And the animals of the Galápagos were in general different from the animals of South America. But curiously, the sea birds and sea turtles were the same. And Darwin found this strange. Likewise other islands had their own species, which resembled the species of nearby continents, but nonetheless were not the same.
     And in the year of 1837, Darwin began a notebook in which he wrote down information bearing on the question of Earth’s species.
     Now he discussed the issue with zookeepers, breeders, naturalists and botanists. He read everything there was to read related to the subject. Clandestinely did he proceed. And there was good reason why he kept his studies secret – he knew that the issue of species creation was religiously highly controversial: England at this time was intensely evangelical; Darwin knew he could be hanged for the thoughts that he was having. And he was very much afraid, for he knew about the persecutions of the Renaissance astronomers.


122 A tanager is a small colorful songbird that feeds mainly on berries, insects and nectar.
123 Darwin’s frog has the curious behavior that the males pick up eggs just before they are to hatch and carry the developing young in an expandable throat pouch until the young frogs are able to take care of themselves.

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The New Testament                                       127

     As for his public life, he proceeded more conservatively: From his expedition notes, he wrote three books on the geology of South America. And these works brought him instant scientific fame: He was made a member of Geological Society of London. And three years later he was elected to the Royal Society of London for Promoting Natural Knowledge. And within the British scientific circle, Charles Darwin was a well-known name.
     And in the year of 1839, he married a wealthy woman, who was a devout Christian and who would soon become a devoted mother and an excellent housekeeper. And a house in the English town of Downe became their home. And they acquired many animals as pets; a dozen cats and dogs went running wildly in the yard. And as he observed the animals’ behavior, his home became a place of study. And, in some sense, Darwin’s house would one day be a temple.

Chapter V: Enlightenment

And it came to pass that Darwin had a revelation. He realized why the terrestrial life of isolated islands such as the Galápagos was different from the life on nearby continents, while the amphibians and sea birds were essentially the same. And the reason was that life evolved, for if life did evolve, then life in geologically distinct regions would develop different features. And so terrestrial life on the Galápagos Archipelago was different from the terrestrial life of South America. But amphibians and sea birds, which could "bridge" the seas between the islands and the continent, would populate them both. And that was why these life forms were the same. And so it came to pass that Darwin did develop evidence for evolution. And the more he scrutinized his data and his notes, the more convinced did he become in evolution – the kingdom of the animal was not immutable; it changed.
     Now Darwin wanted to understand why different finches had such different beaks. And it came to pass that Darwin realized the beaks had been adjusted for the finches’ eating habits. Now the seed-eating finch had a powerful and wide beak so that it could hold and crack hard seeds, while the woodpecker-like finch had a short sharp beak so that it could chisel bark and eat the insects living there. Still another finch had a long delicate and downward-curving beak – and nectar did it drink. And since the finches had evolved in isolation on the Galápagos Archipelago, Darwin hypothesized that all the island’s finches had originated from a single species and that evolution had shaped the beaks and bodies for the finches’ purposes. Thus the features of the finches had adjusted to their habitats and the environment. And this was natural adaptation.
     And so Darwin realized that, like the face of Earth, life also was susceptible to change. And Darwin was enlightened.

This time Darwin saw a greater light.

     And it came to pass that Darwin thought of God. And he reread the Holy Bible’s Book of Genesis. And he was verily disturbed, for, although his mind supported evolution, evolution was, for him, an invasion of his Faith. And during such moments, when Darwin thought of God and evolution, it seemed to him as though a knife thrust through his heart. And it came to pass that a certain sickness fell upon Charles Darwin. All over did he feel a body weakness. And this illness would remain in Darwin almost to the end of Darwin’s life.

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     Now it happened that he read a work by Thomas Malthus on population growth. And in the essay it was argued that populations exponentially increased. And a population would explode in number, save for the food supply, which was but limited. "Would this not create a certain competition even within a single species," thought Darwin, "for at some point there would be a struggle for the food." Thus each member of a species would battle others for the food. And those members that were stronger or better adapted at obtaining food would so survive. And those members that were weaker or not well adapted at obtaining food would die. And so was born the concept of the struggle to survive.
     Now many scientists had previously observed the brutality of one species on another – the lion had always brutally attacked the lamb. But what Darwin realized was a different type of cruelty – in Nature’s world, the members of a single species were up against each other. And those species with the fancier set of antlers, the more colorful attractive feather, the sharper beak, the stronger limb, the swifter leg, the longer claw and so on would have better chances to survive and reproduce. And this was natural selection. And if such traits were passed to succeeding generations then this would explain the changes in a species, which is evolution.
     Now natural selection, argued he, was analogous to artificial selection done by breeders of domestic animals and plants. Such breeders had seen how traits were passed from one generation to the next – the passing of traits was common knowledge, an experimental fact. Now Darwin reasoned that in the competitive natural dominion, "good aspects" of a species should naturally be passed to future generations. But "bad aspects" should be naturally suppressed. And the passing of favorable aspects should create slow changes in a species. And such change would lead to evolution of a species. Thus creatures should evolve.
     Thus bad traits will perpetuate themselves and be destroyed but good traits will be preserved. And this was Darwin’s "law of karma."
     And so he had discovered a great truth: the survival of the fittest – the basic principle of evolution. And when he discovered this, ecstatic was his mind. But his stomach felt upset. And for several days did Darwin lie in bed. He was suffering. It was a kind of suffering which would last for a long time.

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     Now theories of evolution had been around for many years: His grandfather had been one of the developers; the naturalist Larmark had speculated that evolution was even pertinent to man – Larmark had drawn a ladder with a human at the top and a protozoon at the bottom. But at that time few people, including biologists, believed in evolution – it was a speculation, a crazy thought with no foundation. Now Darwin provided two important things – evidence for evolution and a mechanism by which evolution could proceed. The evidence consisted of his specimens, his fossils and the data in his books. The mechanism was natural selection. And so was born a theory of evolution based on survival of the fittest.124

Upon a strong rock did Darwin
begin to build a temple.

     He would spend the rest of his life placing pillars on strong rock.
     Now Darwin’s mind did know the truth, but his soul remained fast-faithful to the Church. And so his heart did bring him pain. And although ill, Darwin’s quest for truth drove him forward in his thinking.

Chapter VI: The Origin of Species

Thus Darwin solved the puzzle of the origin of species. And in the year of 1842, he wrote an abstract of his thesis. And in the year of 1844, he wrote a longer draft. And Darwin’s health got worse: His heart had palpitations. And at times, he vomited. And he put aside the draft. Instead, he studied barnacles. And he spent the next decade collecting facts and organizing them into a treatise. Now in this work, he wanted to argue that different barnacles had been the product of a natural-selection process. But he was afraid that the public would denounce his work as heresy. And so he only hinted of the principle of natural selection.
     Now he knew he had discovered a great truth. And he felt he had to tell the world. But he withheld the truth, for, it seemed to him, humanity was not ready for this truth.
     And there raged a struggle inside Darwin. And mind and soul did battle. At times he was ecstatic. At times he was depressed. He often could not sleep at night. And he asked himself, "Should I or should I not reveal the principle of natural selection to the public?" And so his emotions and his scientific mind did battle. And it would be some time before these battles could be settled.
     And several years went by. And it came to pass that more scientists began to talk about organic evolution. And secretly and internally Darwin thought about his revolutionary thesis.
     And Darwin came to realize that the phylogeny of life was not a ladder but a branching tree, like the arborvitae,125 and that branches were like candelabras – Darwin had discovered though observation and through thought the tree of Life.
     And how he longed to tell the world. And how he feared to tell the world! And when his health was better, he sometimes edited his secret manuscript.
     And several years went by. His manuscript was almost ready, but he waited – he was afraid that his friends and others would be offended by his theory; even his wife might say his thoughts were heresy.
     And all this time, Darwin was still suffering inside.


124 The detailed mechanism of how one generation passes to the next its "good traits" was unknown to Darwin. Today one knows it is done through genes.
125 Any one of several types of evergreen trees - the white cedar is an example.

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     And one day in 1858, a terrible storm struck England. And lightning flashed uncontrollably and violently, and thunder seemed to shake the Darwin home in Downe. And inside the protection of his house and by a glowing fireplace, Darwin read an abstract of a paper by another naturalist named Alfred Wallace. Now the abstract summarized the very thesis Darwin had developed during twenty years of work. And it was as though a priest had spoken out and beckoned Darwin to speak out.
     Thus the abstract forced the hand of Darwin – he handed over his manuscript. Now the word would soon be out – the public would be soon presented with the truth. And in November 1859 was On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection published, and the public was presented with the truth.

Chapter VII: Darwin’s Later Years

And so the flower shall bend its stem
and turn its face to face the light.

And some scientists immediately accepted Darwin’s work, for it was logical and based on Nature’s evidence. But a storm of protests swept the world of the intellectual, the theologian, the philosopher and even common people.126 Now clergymen condemned the book as heresy, for it was against the Biblical portrayal of creation. And theologians were unwilling to compromise and think of certain Biblical accounts as symbolism. And a great debate broke out among the naturalists, biologists and scientists.


126 It is clear why such storms of protest between science and religion arise at times. There is a line that exists between the domain of Nature and the domain of God. People long ago drew the boundary by accident not at the true line but in the land of science. Over the years through the discoveries about the Universe, mankind has realized that certain ancient religious issues are not of the holy domain but of the natural domain. Thus as time has progressed, the boundary, which man has drawn, has shifted toward the true line. Thus science has moved into areas once thought to be spiritual. The examples are many: the moments just after the creation of the Universe; the origin of the stars, the Sun and Earth; the origin of life; the development and evolution of plants and animals; the source of catastrophes; and how the Universe works through physics. But when science does advance over man’s "misdrawn" boundary, people of strong religious belief construe this to be an attack. At such times a battle between science and religion generally occurs. Certain scientists are called heretics and certain scientific theories are called heresy. Unfortunately, some people of religious faith can become disillusioned if the evidence becomes so overwhelming as to convince them that one of their particular religious convictions is not true.* Such disillusionment was the source of Darwin’s life-long illness. The disillusionment and battles between science and religion need not arise if one realizes the source of the problem: a "misdrawn" boundary. Thus science is the complement and not the opponent of religion. As argued in the Introduction, there are many similarities between science and religion. Perhaps science should be regarded as the "religion on the other side of the line." Someday man will draw the boundary where it should be drawn. And from that day onward, science and religion will walk hand in hand.
* An extreme example of this is the life of Robert FitzRoy, a deeply religious man who was the captain of the Beagle. FitzRoy believed every word of the Holy Bible, but began to suffer from lingering doubts due to the knowledge gained of the World during the previous century. FitzRoy had hired Darwin as a naturalist with the hope of discovering the Garden of Eden. Finding this holy birthplace would fortify his faith and the faith of others in the Holy Bible. FitzRoy to alleviate the boredom of the Beagle in the high seas often talked with Darwin, and the two became friends. At times, the captain would argue that the specimens that Darwin had collected proved that the Holy Bible was correct.
    In 1860, FitzRoy participated in the debate over The Origin of Species. At one point in a public gathering, he stood up waving a Holy Bible and shouted to the audience to "believe in God rather than in man." When Darwin’s theory was generally accepted some years later, FitzRoy, depressed, killed himself.

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     Now after several months, most scientists supported The Origin of Species. But still a few opposed. And common people began to participate in the debates. Darwin was slowly gaining followers.
     Now Darwinism, as it would come to be known eventually, was based on but four truths. The first truth was variation: the variation of life forms, the variation of species of a similar type and the variation within a species. And the second truth was heredity – traits and features in one generation were, to a certain extent, passed to the next. And the third truth was the survival struggle: Animals battled one another to survive: Different members within a species fought each other for food or mates. And all life forms were threatened by their surroundings – the environment had a hostile component in it. And the forth truth was natural selection – it was a consequence of the second and third truths and led to the first truth: In struggling to exist only the fittest would survive, and the fit would pass their traits to future generations, and this would lead to Nature’s great floral and great faunal variations.
     Now there were a few scientists who supported Darwin so fervently they proselytized, as if the concepts were the gospel truths. And Darwin was embarrassed by such idolaters of science.
     And the public debate was great indeed – Englishmen and others engaged in arguments at work and in public places such as parks and pubs. Neighbors did the same – housewives, leaning over picket fences, gossiped on the evolutionary concepts.
     And debates were held at distinguished universities, as professors engaged in intellectual duels. There was a great battle to decide whether Darwin’s thesis was correct.
     Now Darwin avoided the public eye as best he could. Instead he focused on gathering more evidence for his ideas on evolution. And he studied the variations of animals and plants under man-made breeding and domestication.
     And upon observing orchids, Darwin sensed their nectar had a purpose. Soon he realized that the purpose was to draw in bees. "Now why would orchids desire to attract the bees?" he asked. And one day, Darwin’s trained eye spotted specks of pollen on a bee. Then he hypothesized that the reason for the nectar was to transfer orchid pollen. And by these means, orchids could breed the way that humans bred domesticated animals and plants. Thus the orchid used the bee instead of human hands to breed. Thus the plant and insect formed a symbiosis.

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132                        The Bible According to Einstein

     And as time went by, a larger fraction of the public did believe in evolution. And eventually Darwin’s ideas were generally accepted. And no longer did scientists, philosophers and laymen see the world as fixed and as immutable. And questions arose as to whether there existed in the living world a great design. And as time went by, the controversy of the origin of species diminished and almost died. But the conflict between science and religion concerning evolution would continue throughout Darwin’s life.
     Then in the year 1871, Darwin’s The Descent of Man appeared. And there was another outcry from the public, for it was argued that man was part of evolution. And it was proposed that the origin of man and all animals could be linked to an ancient primordial amoeba. And Darwin was ridiculed by some who called his hypothesis the "monkey theory." They said, "It is his ancient ancestors, the monkeys, which led him to such foolish thoughts." They made fun of Darwin – they asked him whether it was his mother or his father who had descended from the ape. But in the end, it would be neither humor nor ridicule that would prevail; it would be facts and truth.
     Yet there were others who were more open-minded and said his theories brought enlightenment. And so controversy was rekindled each time Darwin wrote a book.
     And throughout his later years, Darwin continued to publish works related to his findings. He argued that great apes and other "higher" mammals had emotions and perhaps they even had a psychological disposition – cats, dogs, monkeys, horses and in fact almost all the "higher" mammals moved facial muscles and emitted sounds indicative of feelings such as anxiety, despair, joy, devotion, fear and suffering. Hitherto, it had been thought that only humans had emotions. Such discoveries bought enlightenment to Darwin.
     Next he pointed out the role of sex, how it created competition among males for females. And in the battles for the most attractive females, the stronger better males won out. And so the "better" males and females passed their traits to future generations. And he explained the beauty of the male peacock’s tail, for in the peacock population was the role of sex reversed – females fought among themselves to mate with males that had the most attractive tails. And surprisingly, few scientists at the time agreed with the concept of the peacock sex-reversal, but after a century it would be almost universally accepted. And Darwin speculated that the intricate antlers of the male deer arose because of their defensive value and because females found them sexually attractive. Thus sex could play a role in evolution.

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     And with such arguments and evidence, Darwin fortified his temple.
     And it came to pass that he engaged in artificial breeding – he did what Nature had been doing. And he viewed the tree of Life as an interconnected wonderful great structure, which held a beauty and a truth which far exceeded the old concept that each species was a separate act of birth-creation.
     And finally, it came to pass that Darwin’s illness, which had waned and waxed for many years, did go away. Darwin had internal peace – it was as though he underwent nirvana of the scientific kind – his suffering inside was gone.
     And Darwin’s life was full of joy and pleasure. And he became a great breeder, botanist and horticultural experimentalist – he was a man of Nature. And he noted that flowers that are pollinated by the wind have no nectar and are dull in color, but flowers that use insects have sweet nectars and display a range of colors. Thus flowers had evolved according to their reproductive needs. And he argued for natural selection within the floral kingdom: Some trees grew tall in the battle to obtain a better angle to the Sun; they would strive to grow to be the highest trees. Likewise, some vines spiralled to achieve a better heat and light. And to his surprise, he found that vines would not climb trees whose diameters were greater than a half a foot – it was as though vines knew such trees would be too tall to climb. And he investigated insectivorous plants, which could trap a fly with tentacles or glue-like substances. And so he discovered a power in the movement of the plants.
     And so his principles were universal – they ruled all forms of life. And with these observations, his temple was complete.
     Now Darwin’s final work was a study of the habits of earthworms. He pointed out the role of worms in digesting fallen leaves to recirculate organic matter – this was natural ecology. And one black and moonless night, Darwin ventured outside with a candle. And he held the candle near a bunch of worms. And though eyeless, the earthworms moved away.

They have no eyes but they see light.

     And it cannot be denied that Darwin’s life’s observations also shed some light.
     And true joy did he attain, for by the late 1800’s were his ideas on natural selection and on evolution generally accepted – he had a great following.
     And on the nineteenth day of the fourth month of the year of eighteen-eighty-two, Darwin’s mind and soul were laid to rest – he was buried in Westminster Abbey, but his spirit did not there remain, for it rose up and it was placed among the stars.

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